Without efficient operation and maintenance, it is not possible to guarantee the safety of road tunnel users and an acceptable tunnel life cycle cost.
Operation and maintenance activities can be divided into three main streams of activity:
Efficient operations and a cooperative environment among different stakeholders in charge of tunnel and emergency management clearly underpin the safety and comfort of users and operators both in normal operations and in the event of an incident.
In Europe, Directive 2004/54/CE on "Minimum safety requirements for tunnels in the trans-European road network" clearly states that safety is not only related to structural elements and equipment. This European directive identifies and describes the specific roles and responsibilities for the different entities involved in operation and maintenance activities for a road tunnel..
The present chapter is broken down into four sub-sections: